The first group mostly come from Guangdong and Fujian and worked on sugar plantations as contrast labors and settled in Hawaiian, as early as 1789. The vast majority of immigrants were enterprisers or independent labors who came to California during the gold rush in 1849 and resided in the West Coast. During 1865~ 1867, The Central Pacific Railroad Company hired more than 10, 000 Chinese to build the first transcontinental railroad, in which completed in 1869. However, their wages were apparently low, comparing to the white workers.
l Social problem: The unbalanced sexual rate of immigrants leads to the rise of prostitution. Consequently, a significant number of female young women were imported to U.S and forced into the job of prostitution, especially in western cities and mining towns. The situation converted after 1870.