Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film
By Seymour Benjamin Chatman (quotes)
１“A narrative is a communication; hence, it presupposes two parties, a sender and a receiver. Each party entails three different personages. On the sending end are the real author, the implied author, and the narrator (if any); on the receiving end, the real audience (listener, reader, viewer), the implied audience, and the narratee.(28)
２“the audience must respond with an interpretation: they cannot avoid participating in the transaction. The must fill in gaps with essential or likely events, traits and objects which for various reasons have gone unmentioned” (28).