追星.旅遊.養生.音樂.兩性愛情.時尚 Travel Blog/Health Issues/ Music/ Love Relationship Column/Korean Drama/ Japanese Drama/Fashion/Interior Design 1. 時尚.室內設計.穿搭 2. 旅遊地圖3. 娛樂八卦影視笑談 4.日文英文學堂 5. 熱門時事新聞社會議題追蹤

目前分類:英美文學 papers★★ (13)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

In the first place, it is said before Victorian age, sex drive and sexual intercourse are valued as spontaneous and natural. It is widely believed that the power mechanism of Victorian times disfigures the essence and orientation of sexuality. Undeniably, the advent of Darwinism indirectly serves as an impetus to the occurrence of sexual morality. The hypothesis of Darwinism unprecedentedly juxtaposes human’s sexual intercourse with animalistic instinct. It is widely believed that people of Victorian times are inextricably chained by this hypothesis and contrive to sever the interrelationship between human beings and animal by claiming those who fail to control their sexual desire are inferior human beings. In a sense, the pleasure of sexual intercourse is extremely removed and the bondage followed in the wake of this aforementioned assumption. It is an established fact that sexuality is greatly restricted to the formal purpose of procreation. In this approach, the essence of sexual intercourse is extremely stigmatized and the sexual bondage followed. At root, morality is quintessentially man-made and socially-determined. At any rate, it involves in artificial intervention. The highly-placed people of Victorian contrive to debase the essence of sexuality and view sexuality as something shameful and despicable.

It is widely believe that adultery is a notion heavily associated with disgust and shame. In spite of this understanding, in Moll Flanders and Roxana, it is evident that it is a commonplace thing for men and women to commit adultery. Then, is the society sick or morbid? If the majority represents the norm, can majority just the wrongdoings or manifest true humanity or the nature of sexuality when perversity turns into an overwhelming and overarching social phenomenon?

Still, sex is undeniably treated as a forbidden subject or an unspoken and dangerous subject to engage in conversion on public occasions. In respect to sexual morality, it leads toward a question: are we still situated in the Victorian age? For centuries, Victorian ideology pertaining to sexuality successfully popularized and is forcefully embedded in the minds of everyone that the masses are initially compelled to view sexuality through the lens of morality. At the core, sexual morality dehumanizes human beings by demonizing and annihilating sexual desire and human beings subsequently entered into a mechanized society. The internalization of sexual morality makes it way to the modern world. Therefore, those who infringe the social normality are doomed to endure self-hatred and self-depreciation. Woman who commits sexual deviation are viewed as dangerous victims who harbors bizarre impulse.

In modern times, weighted is judged as incorrigible bondage for women and it becomes a commonplace thing for people to get involved in the so-called abnormal sexual relationship and behaviors such as adultery or sexuality-oriented role play. If the majority represents the norm, can majority just the wrongdoings or manifest true human nature when sexual aberration turns into an overarching social phenomenon?If the regular sexuality happened to be question once again, it was through a reflux movement”(Foucault 893). At length, it revisits another perennial question: is sexual intercourse natural or shameful? Is it or disgraceful or immoral to embrace and perform lavish sexual practice? Is bizarre sexual fantasy morbid? On the other hand, sexual intercourse is justified and within marriage as a duty but a shame in and out marriage. If sexuality has something to do with shame, then husband and wife are obliged to practice obscenity on a regular basis, which sounds illogical.

My argument is hierarchy system attribute to the stratified world in the domain of gender, class and race and based on the operation of exploitation, oppression and discrimination by exploiting the weaker or exploiting the other. I conceive hierarchy system is more entrenched and irreversible than patriarchy ideology.

Roxana is a non-conformist who displays anti-convention spirits and she questions male authority imposed upon her by subverting gender hierarchy. Roxana pits against patriarchy system but she is a prisoner of hierarchy ideology that she can never free from the glamor of the aristocracy. Roxana ultimately betrays her principle of self-reliance by marrying for the sake of the temptation of the duchess title. On the other hand, Roxana’ scheme of child-murder evidences her annihilation of emotional ties, including motherly bond to her kids, which offers a subtle evidence of the pernicious social impact of fetishized culture. In a sense, she is basically unnatural in the moralist term.

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Disclosure of Consciousness and Subconsciousness in The Rainbow 

In my perspective, The Rainbow could be highly-valued as a perfect piece of work for psychological analysis, concerning its penetrating manifestation of the realm of subconsciousness, in which is hidden beneath our consciousness, literally the unknown. At bottom, the dark desire within human beings remains a thorny issue and subconsciousness is essentially a mystery to human beings. Beyond that, sexual desire remains enigmatic also. Personally, I assume sexual desire is innate and roots in instinct, which is essentially uncanny and unfathomable. Then, when it comes to the narrative technique in unveiling the unfathomable force in our brain, Lawrence adopts free indirect discourse as a device to bring human being’s subconsciousness to light through the application of an omniscient third person narrator, whom is endowed with God-like omniscient knowledge of the whole package and access to the character’s interior working, including the hidden thoughts which is beyond the reach of the characters themselves. Significantly, the narrator peers into the characters’ mind and deciphers and documents the consciousness and subconsciousness in his own terms. Hence, the authoritative perspective of the third-person narrator often seamlessly merges with or overlaps the character’s own perspective. 

In The Rainbow, The frequency of the occurrence of undercurrents of subconsciousness offers a framework for the psychological analysis. In this approach, the text itself is beneficial to the disclosure of the myth of subconsciousness. The story spans three generations and anchors on the most common relationships, chiefly revolving around from family ties and love relationships. Throughout the story, readers can perceive the intensity of life experiences, the suffering of unfulfilled desires and the conflicts and the incompatibility between intimate relationships in general. Evidently, in The Rainbow, the characters suffer incorrigibly in particular in relations of sexual alliance. 

At the core, powerlessness and helplessness to emotions and instinct are the recurring theme. For another, the past intervenes and dominate the current moment forcefully on occasions. In particular, Lydiashe is a victim who subjects to and consumes her life to the trauma of the past. In the novel, Lydia is a Polish widowed and she roams to the England as an approach to cut off her past, to “escape” from the old memories (50). England’s’ aloofness and foreignness” suits her “mood,” on the ground that” she craves for “heavy oblivion of her old state” namely,” the old loss, the pain of the old life,” (52, 63, 251). In truth, situated in a new place, she still fails to extricate herself from the past. She tries hard to sever the relations of her past but in truth her inner thoughts still swamped with memories of the past helplessly and unconsciously. Hence, she contrives to stuff her mind with “blanks” in order to stay” outside the enclosure of darkness” (49, 52). Concerning Lydia’s condition, her “dying husband,was a vision to her” which troubles her spirit dramatically, and whenever the “vision” aroused, she is wrapped up in complete “darkness” (49, 52 ). In a sense, she is vulnerable to the past happenings. 

Her bitterness roots in her consciousness of assuming herself a victim. She victimizes her role and assumes her will is annihilated or disadvantaged at least in her first martial relationship (52). As to her understanding, Lensky’s “God-like” authority imposes upon her and her “self-subordination” is out of compulsion, thereby she perceives her true self is” beaten” in the marriage (254).Lydia feels her independence of mind is eradicated in the role of a submissive wife, who serves, “echoing” her husband, “as if drugged” (48). Because of her “self-subordination,” “she became Lensky’s slave” and she resents it (48, 254, 255).Her “self-subordination” is a one-way street and her existence is absorbed into his existence and she becomes a “shadow” attached to his existence in the love relationship (49). 

For decades,Lydiais besieged by the trauma of her past that she revisits the past moments irresistibly. The wounded experience attacks her subconsciously. As suggested by the narrator’s insinuation, it “needed so much life to begin afresh, after she had lost so lavishly” (63). By telling, the third-person narrator is empowered to peer intoLydia’s mind and chroniclesLydia’s inner perception in his own terms. By showing, the narrator reportsLydia’s inner thinking without intervention of comments. WhenLydiaand Ursula engage in a conversation talking about the “two wedding rings,” she relives her past again. In between the dialogue between Ursula andLydia, the narrator inserts his authoritative statement by adopting a distanced self reasoning outLydia’s emotions. 

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

 The Interplay Between Abjection and Juissance: The Overlapping of Abjection and Desire in Angels in America

    At the core, I anchor on Kristeva and Lacan’s psychoanalytic theory to delve into the manifestation of narcissistic crisis and identity transformation of Joe Pitt in Angels in America with an attempt to scrutinize the boundary-overlapping between desire and abjection and interplay between Jouissance and abjection, which decidedly associate with the territory of sexual intercourse. I am tempted to explore how Joe converts himself from a victim of abject into a “fascinated victim” (Kristeva 9). At bottom, Kristeva’s psychoanalytic theory models on Freud's psychosexual developmental theory, which is chiefly grounded in his ideas of sexual drive. Angels in America touches on the issues of discriminated sexual orientation, namely, homosexuality. Evidently, Joe Pitt’s identity negotiation and metamorphosis process offer compelling example of a paradoxical momentum between abjection and Juissance. Essentially, I center on psychoanalyzing Joe’s identity formation in deciphering Joe's inner turmoil and ultimate emancipation. Joe Pitt proceeds through the role of a closeted Marmon homophobia adherent into a confident coming out gay.

Sexual intercourse is a historically biased and stigmatized subject, which conventionally tied up to the issues ranged from shame, transgression to moral corruption. It is a norm that sexuality represents or disturbs an individual’s identity. The contradiction lies in the fact that sexual intercourse is ironically the main source of Juissance for human beings, which is in accordance with Freud's theory. Sexual need is partly of human nature and instinctually corporeal. Sex drive is essentially reproductive. Hence, when abjection located in the boundary of sexuality, its interruption could be more drastic, intense and recurrent.[1]Sex drive is “ the heterogeneous flow” inherent in the human body” namely, “ a possession previous to my advent, a being-there of the symbolic” (10). I suppose the overlapping of abjection and desire frequently hinges on the boundary of sexual related discourse, such as adultery, role play or SM and so on, which are generally insinuated to the biased conception of perversity.

In Joe’s case, the mainstream homophobia embodies the symbolic order and homosexual identity epitomizes the abjection, the excluded, the horrifying otherness, which has something to do with mortification and inferiority. Trying to disconnect himself from the horrified shame-ridden identity, homosexual identity, Joe fights against his sexual instinct and embraces false identity as a straight men.Hence, he executes erosion of sexual needs, which is an execution of "repression" and defense mechanism proposed by Freud. When it comes to need, need is “the precondition of the individual’s survival and well-being “which demands “real, tangible objects for its satisfaction (60). Joes bears deprivation or hunger of sexual needs before coming out. Instinct denial is an absolutely fatal sacrifice. Before Joe’s coming out, he grapples with sexual hunger and sexual dissatisfaction in life. According to Freud’s pleasure principle, human is born to embrace pleasure by nature. Hence, instinct-denial is terribly unnatural. Also, Joe describes a picture of Jacob wrestling an angel has always stuck with Joe.[2] He describes it to Harper:

Jacob is young and very strong. The angel is... a beautiful man, with golden hair and wings, of course. [...] It's me. In that struggle. Fierce, and unfair. [...] Losing means your soul thrown down in the dust, your heart torn out from God's. But you can't not lose. (2.2.11)

The picture embodies and reveals his primal repression.

, ,

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Morality Play★★★

It is promoted and encouraged by Church and civil authority in the late medieval era with an attempt to render teachings and knowledge about social, moral value in a didactic approach. With dramatic allegories, it centers on illustrating personalized virtues, vice or temptation struggles. “ Everyman” and “ Dr. Faustus” are classic example of this genre.

 Separatists

 It is a strict puritan sect of the 16th and 16the centuries that the separatists would rather separate form the Church of England than reform and many of them first settled America.

Gothic romance ★★★

In dealing with prevailing atmosphere of supernatural mystery, terror and suspense, gothic romance usually sets against dark backgrounds of medieval ruins and haunted, gloomy old castles and fills with grotesque atmosphere. “Gothic” is a term applied to medieval architecture and gothic romance contributes to the new emotional climate of Romanticism. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) is a wellknown example.

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

名詞解釋得分關鍵: 

看到熟悉題型務必準確及迅速決定落筆

筆記必須列出3句上下關鍵句

如果是論說題,第一句下筆topic sentence 直接破題

接著, back up your argument with examples

看到不熟悉的議不用太過緊張,簡單列出大綱,條列式邏輯分析,幫助思考及寫題。

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Sonnet 始祖Petrarch 大師(widely used)

Definition: The term” sonnet” derives form the Occitan word’ sonnet” and Italian word “sonnetto,” both literally meaning” little song.” Sonnet is one of the poetic forms which consists of 14 lines. According to a strict rhyme scheme, sonnets are written in iambic pentameter and every other syllable is naturally accented.

First Stanza

Octave (8 lines) => ask a Question

2 variable form  :

ABBAABBA

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

American Dream and the Lost Generation

Key information:

American dream is credit with a dominating vision of freedom, equality and expectation of material success. It promises individuals are relieved from hierarchical social structure and ancient prejudice and free to pursue and achieve their goals through industry, capability and free choice and a “better, richer, and happier life” is approachable. In brief, it is grounded in a hopeful vision of discovery, and pursuit of happiness in propagating the idea that individual’s hard labor will equal to their rewards. It can be measured as the starting point of individualism. At the core, the conception of an overinflated ambition is accused. In a sense, it builds a cohesive American experience but it has also been blamed for overinflated expectations of success.

Vocabulary review:

l  cohesive 凝聚性

l  overinflated 過度誇張

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(7) 人氣()

交通大學歷屆考古題

85年度~99學年度

http://www.lib.nctu.edu.tw/n_exam/index.html

《英美文学史》考前複習

 

一、            作家作品

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

 

 

Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film
By Seymour Benjamin Chatman (quotes)
1“A narrative is a communication; hence, it presupposes two parties, a sender and a receiver. Each party entails three different personages. On the sending end are the real author, the implied author, and the narrator (if any); on the receiving end, the real audience (listener, reader, viewer), the implied audience, and the narratee.(28)
2“the audience must respond with an interpretation: they cannot avoid participating in the transaction. The must fill in gaps with essential or likely events, traits and objects which for various reasons have gone unmentioned” (28).

,

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Instructor: Yi- Chuang E Lin

Course: Time, Consciousness and Narrative

Final Paper

Student Number: 9842507, Amber

 

Disclosure of Consciousness and Subconsciousness in The Rainbow

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

全文摘錄自

艾蜜莉 花之歌Emily Dickinson  郭雪貞譯 (我覺得翻的很不錯

其一:

風狂是最神聖的智慧

在明辨的眼中

所謂的智慧

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()


The first group mostly come from Guangdong and Fujian and worked on sugar plantations as contrast labors and settled in Hawaiian, as early as 1789. The vast majority of immigrants were enterprisers or independent labors who came to California during the gold rush in 1849 and resided in the West Coast. During 1865~ 1867, The Central Pacific Railroad Company hired more than 10, 000 Chinese to build the first transcontinental railroad, in which completed in 1869. However, their wages were apparently low, comparing to the white workers.

l          Social problem: The unbalanced sexual rate of immigrants leads to the rise of prostitution. Consequently, a significant number of female young women were imported to U.S and forced into the job of prostitution, especially in western cities and mining towns. The situation converted after 1870.

l          Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882.

 

強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

Sigmund Freud

     他可謂心理學的潛意識治療大師。他在維也納及澳地利長大並成為一個精神治療的醫生。專研心理學,早期他以催眠狀態(hypnosi)來進行精神上的治療,他相信歇斯底里的情緒和當事人心中壓抑的創傷有極大關聯。他後來進行一項名為”free association”的實驗,藉此導出人內心潛意識的情感,他研究的成果是,精神上的不安恐懼等等根自於壓抑的性慾或性渴望,基於此理論,他強調性愛(sexual development)能夠有效排遣或治療心理的不安或緊張的精神狀態。(psychological tension or trauma )

l          Neuroses are rooted in suppressed sexual desires.

: 他個人的註冊商標是吸煙,在他要過世的前幾年他和癌症對抗(battle cancer),不過始終沒有戒菸


強心臟戰鬥力女孩 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()