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In the first place, it is said before Victorian age, sex drive and sexual intercourse are valued as spontaneous and natural. It is widely believed that the power mechanism of Victorian times disfigures the essence and orientation of sexuality. Undeniably, the advent of Darwinism indirectly serves as an impetus to the occurrence of sexual morality. The hypothesis of Darwinism unprecedentedly juxtaposes human’s sexual intercourse with animalistic instinct. It is widely believed that people of Victorian times are inextricably chained by this hypothesis and contrive to sever the interrelationship between human beings and animal by claiming those who fail to control their sexual desire are inferior human beings. In a sense, the pleasure of sexual intercourse is extremely removed and the bondage followed in the wake of this aforementioned assumption. It is an established fact that sexuality is greatly restricted to the formal purpose of procreation. In this approach, the essence of sexual intercourse is extremely stigmatized and the sexual bondage followed. At root, morality is quintessentially man-made and socially-determined. At any rate, it involves in artificial intervention. The highly-placed people of Victorian contrive to debase the essence of sexuality and view sexuality as something shameful and despicable.

It is widely believe that adultery is a notion heavily associated with disgust and shame. In spite of this understanding, in Moll Flanders and Roxana, it is evident that it is a commonplace thing for men and women to commit adultery. Then, is the society sick or morbid? If the majority represents the norm, can majority just the wrongdoings or manifest true humanity or the nature of sexuality when perversity turns into an overwhelming and overarching social phenomenon?

Still, sex is undeniably treated as a forbidden subject or an unspoken and dangerous subject to engage in conversion on public occasions. In respect to sexual morality, it leads toward a question: are we still situated in the Victorian age? For centuries, Victorian ideology pertaining to sexuality successfully popularized and is forcefully embedded in the minds of everyone that the masses are initially compelled to view sexuality through the lens of morality. At the core, sexual morality dehumanizes human beings by demonizing and annihilating sexual desire and human beings subsequently entered into a mechanized society. The internalization of sexual morality makes it way to the modern world. Therefore, those who infringe the social normality are doomed to endure self-hatred and self-depreciation. Woman who commits sexual deviation are viewed as dangerous victims who harbors bizarre impulse.

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Disclosure of Consciousness and Subconsciousness in The Rainbow 

In my perspective, The Rainbow could be highly-valued as a perfect piece of work for psychological analysis, concerning its penetrating manifestation of the realm of subconsciousness, in which is hidden beneath our consciousness, literally the unknown. At bottom, the dark desire within human beings remains a thorny issue and subconsciousness is essentially a mystery to human beings. Beyond that, sexual desire remains enigmatic also. Personally, I assume sexual desire is innate and roots in instinct, which is essentially uncanny and unfathomable. Then, when it comes to the narrative technique in unveiling the unfathomable force in our brain, Lawrence adopts free indirect discourse as a device to bring human being’s subconsciousness to light through the application of an omniscient third person narrator, whom is endowed with God-like omniscient knowledge of the whole package and access to the character’s interior working, including the hidden thoughts which is beyond the reach of the characters themselves. Significantly, the narrator peers into the characters’ mind and deciphers and documents the consciousness and subconsciousness in his own terms. Hence, the authoritative perspective of the third-person narrator often seamlessly merges with or overlaps the character’s own perspective. 

In The Rainbow, The frequency of the occurrence of undercurrents of subconsciousness offers a framework for the psychological analysis. In this approach, the text itself is beneficial to the disclosure of the myth of subconsciousness. The story spans three generations and anchors on the most common relationships, chiefly revolving around from family ties and love relationships. Throughout the story, readers can perceive the intensity of life experiences, the suffering of unfulfilled desires and the conflicts and the incompatibility between intimate relationships in general. Evidently, in The Rainbow, the characters suffer incorrigibly in particular in relations of sexual alliance. 

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 The Interplay Between Abjection and Juissance: The Overlapping of Abjection and Desire in Angels in America

    At the core, I anchor on Kristeva and Lacan’s psychoanalytic theory to delve into the manifestation of narcissistic crisis and identity transformation of Joe Pitt in Angels in America with an attempt to scrutinize the boundary-overlapping between desire and abjection and interplay between Jouissance and abjection, which decidedly associate with the territory of sexual intercourse. I am tempted to explore how Joe converts himself from a victim of abject into a “fascinated victim” (Kristeva 9). At bottom, Kristeva’s psychoanalytic theory models on Freud's psychosexual developmental theory, which is chiefly grounded in his ideas of sexual drive. Angels in America touches on the issues of discriminated sexual orientation, namely, homosexuality. Evidently, Joe Pitt’s identity negotiation and metamorphosis process offer compelling example of a paradoxical momentum between abjection and Juissance. Essentially, I center on psychoanalyzing Joe’s identity formation in deciphering Joe's inner turmoil and ultimate emancipation. Joe Pitt proceeds through the role of a closeted Marmon homophobia adherent into a confident coming out gay.

Sexual intercourse is a historically biased and stigmatized subject, which conventionally tied up to the issues ranged from shame, transgression to moral corruption. It is a norm that sexuality represents or disturbs an individual’s identity. The contradiction lies in the fact that sexual intercourse is ironically the main source of Juissance for human beings, which is in accordance with Freud's theory. Sexual need is partly of human nature and instinctually corporeal. Sex drive is essentially reproductive. Hence, when abjection located in the boundary of sexuality, its interruption could be more drastic, intense and recurrent.[1]Sex drive is “ the heterogeneous flow” inherent in the human body” namely, “ a possession previous to my advent, a being-there of the symbolic” (10). I suppose the overlapping of abjection and desire frequently hinges on the boundary of sexual related discourse, such as adultery, role play or SM and so on, which are generally insinuated to the biased conception of perversity.

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Morality Play★★★

It is promoted and encouraged by Church and civil authority in the late medieval era with an attempt to render teachings and knowledge about social, moral value in a didactic approach. With dramatic allegories, it centers on illustrating personalized virtues, vice or temptation struggles. “ Everyman” and “ Dr. Faustus” are classic example of this genre.

 Separatists

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名詞解釋得分關鍵: 

看到熟悉題型務必準確及迅速決定落筆

筆記必須列出3句上下關鍵句

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Sonnet 始祖Petrarch 大師(widely used)

Definition: The term” sonnet” derives form the Occitan word’ sonnet” and Italian word “sonnetto,” both literally meaning” little song.” Sonnet is one of the poetic forms which consists of 14 lines. According to a strict rhyme scheme, sonnets are written in iambic pentameter and every other syllable is naturally accented.

First Stanza

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American Dream and the Lost Generation

Key information:

American dream is credit with a dominating vision of freedom, equality and expectation of material success. It promises individuals are relieved from hierarchical social structure and ancient prejudice and free to pursue and achieve their goals through industry, capability and free choice and a “better, richer, and happier life” is approachable. In brief, it is grounded in a hopeful vision of discovery, and pursuit of happiness in propagating the idea that individual’s hard labor will equal to their rewards. It can be measured as the starting point of individualism. At the core, the conception of an overinflated ambition is accused. In a sense, it builds a cohesive American experience but it has also been blamed for overinflated expectations of success.

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交通大學歷屆考古題

85年度~99學年度

http://www.lib.nctu.edu.tw/n_exam/index.html

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Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film

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Instructor: Yi- Chuang E Lin

Course: Time, Consciousness and Narrative

Final Paper

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全文摘錄自

艾蜜莉 花之歌Emily Dickinson  郭雪貞譯 (我覺得翻的很不錯

其一:

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The first group mostly come from Guangdong and Fujian and worked on sugar plantations as contrast labors and settled in Hawaiian, as early as 1789. The vast majority of immigrants were enterprisers or independent labors who came to California during the gold rush in 1849 and resided in the West Coast. During 1865~ 1867, The Central Pacific Railroad Company hired more than 10, 000 Chinese to build the first transcontinental railroad, in which completed in 1869. However, their wages were apparently low, comparing to the white workers.

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Sigmund Freud

     他可謂心理學的潛意識治療大師。他在維也納及澳地利長大並成為一個精神治療的醫生。專研心理學,早期他以催眠狀態(hypnosi)來進行精神上的治療,他相信歇斯底里的情緒和當事人心中壓抑的創傷有極大關聯。他後來進行一項名為”free association”的實驗,藉此導出人內心潛意識的情感,他研究的成果是,精神上的不安恐懼等等根自於壓抑的性慾或性渴望,基於此理論,他強調性愛(sexual development)能夠有效排遣或治療心理的不安或緊張的精神狀態。(psychological tension or trauma )

l          Neuroses are rooted in suppressed sexual desires.

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